Publications

Academic Papers

A Model for Context in the Design of Open Production Communities
In:The ACM Computing Surveys

October 2014

Published Paper
Author: Pujan Ziaie
Abstract: Open production communities (OPCs) provide technical features and social norms for a vast but dispersed and diverse crowd to collectively accumulate content. In OPCs, certain mechanisms, policies and technologies are provided for voluntary users to participate in community-related activities including content generation, evaluation, qualification and distribution and in some cases even community governance. Due to the known complexities and dynamism of online communities, designing a successful community is deemed more an art than a science. Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of certain types of OPCs. Most of these studies, however, fall short of delivering a general view or prescription due to their narrow focus on a certain type of OPCs. In contribution to theories on technology-mediated social participation (TMSP), this study synthesizes the streams of research in the particular area of OPCs and delivers a theoretical framework as a baseline for adapting findings from one specific type of communities on another. This framework consists of four primary dimensions, namely platform features, content, user and community. The corresponding attributes of these dimensions and the existing interdependencies are discussed in detail. Furthermore, a decision diagram for selecting features and a design guideline for "de-contextualizing" findings are introduced as possible applications of the framework. The framework also provides a new and reliable foundation on which future research can extend its findings and prescriptions in a systematic way.
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A Theoretical Framework for User Participation in Open Production Communities
In: The International Journal of Community Diversity

2014

Published Paper
Author: Pujan Ziaie
Abstract: Open production communities (OPCs) aim to channel voluntary users' creativity, energy, and knowledge to develop public content. Understanding user behavior is of utmost importance in this context, since such communities live off users' contributions and commitment. Still, designing and implementing apt incentives to sustain participation is deemed a challenging task due to the dynamic nature of online communities as a ubiquitous subset of socio-technical systems. In this paper, the existing body of research pertaining to user participation and motivation is reviewed and synthesized from two salient dimensions of user and community. Drawing on various theories, an integrated design framework is conceptualized which encompasses essential factors and causal relations that may influence user behavior. This framework provides insight into user behavior, implicit and explicit motivational factors, and the existing interdependencies between these constructs. The accumulation of the current dispersed knowledge in this field of study helps community designers and operators to have a holistic view over the influential factors on user behavior in online communities and introduce necessary measures and features accordingly.
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Designing Target-Oriented Incentive Systems for Online Production Communities
In: Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI)

2014

Published Paper
Authors: Pujan Ziaie, Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: Online production communities aim to realize the collective intelligence and leverage the potential creativity, manpower, and knowledge of volunteer users to generate high quality, public content. Introducing appropriate incentives to sustain participation is not a trivial task for community designers due to the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of such communities. In this paper, we review and synthesize the existing body of research pertaining to user participation and incentive systems and propose a novel approach towards incentive systems based on user desires and lifecycle-based community objectives. The identified relevant user desires drawn from Reiss's theory of basic desires are self-importance, self-development, fun, vindication, socialization, group identity and uniqueness. By using this desire-based approach, we conceptualize a generalizable and target-oriented iterative design model for developing and adapting incentive systems. The theorized model extends the current body of research by accumulating and merging the academic findings from different types of communities into a unified prescriptive model. This model also provides a practical guide for community designers to follow a systematic approach towards designing effective incentive systems.
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Hidden or Implicit Contextual Factors Influencing User Participation in Online Production Communities
For: The Americas' Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS2013)

August 2013

Published Paper
Author: Pujan Ziaie, Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: User participation is an inextricable part of online communities that live off user-generated content. Since these communities depend on sustained participation, they often employ various incentives to maximize the contributions and collective intelligence of users. Most prior research on user participation is focused on one specific type of production community (e.g. open source or Wikipedia) or on explicit incentives. However, despite the large body of literature devoted to this area, few systematic attempts have yet been made to identify common hidden or implicit factors. These factors sometimes have considerable impact on user commitment and participation. In this paper, we review and organize the pertinent literature and provide a generic list of implicit factors that account for a sustained flow of contributions. We also hypothesize a model that represents the interdependencies of some of these factors. The outcome provides community designers with a fine-grained knowledge framework and the corresponding design guidelines.
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Lifecycle-based Evolution of Features in Collaborative Open Production Communities: The Case of Wikipedia
For: the 21st European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2013)

June 2013

Published Paper
Author: Pujan Ziaie, Medin Imamovic
Abstract: In the last decade, collaborative open production communities have provided an effective platform for geographically dispersed users to collaborate and generate content in a well-structured and consistent form. Wikipedia is a prominent example in this area. What is of great importance in production communities is the prioritization and evolution of features with regards to the community lifecycle. Users are the cornerstone of such communities and their needs and attitudes constantly change as communities grow. The increasing amount and versatility of content and users requires modifications in areas ranging from user roles and access levels to content quality standards and community policies and goals. In this paper, we draw on two pertinent theories in terms of the lifecycle of online communities and open collaborative communities in particular by focusing on the case of Wikipedia. We conceptualize three general stages (Rising, Organizing, and Stabilizing) within the lifecycle of collaborative open production communities. The salient factors, features and focus of attention in each stage are provided and the chronology of features is visualized. These findings, if properly generalized, can help designers of other types of open production communities effectively allocate their resources and introduce new features based on the needs of both community and users.
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Content in Open Production Communities: Taxonomy and Design Construct
For: International Conference on Computer Applications Technology (ICCAT)

January 2013

Published Paper
Author: Pujan Ziaie and Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: Open production communities (OPCs) are online communities in which content is solely generated by users and is publicly available for everyone. By leveraging the manpower and collective intelligence of a vast crowd, these communities facilitate gleaning, structuring, evaluating and sharing information from different perspectives and in different areas of interest. Content, as "the king" in OPCs, has been loosely modeled and defined in the literature. Observing the lack of a standard and generalized terminology in the field of production communities in general and in content-related activities in particular, this paper introduces a fine-grained taxonomy for OPCs and a novel representational construct to resolve inconsistencies based on the existing theories and approaches. The results will establish a standard vocabulary and a unified construct for content to be used by researchers and community designers in this growing field of study.
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Challenges and Issues of ICT Industry in Developing Countries
For: International Conference on Computer Applications Technology (ICCAT)

Jaunary 2013

Published Paper
Author: Pujan Ziaie
Abstract: The impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) on enhancing the quality of services and decreasing the overall costs has been the focus of numerous studies in the last two decades. The introduction and employment of ICT in devel-oping countries, however, has not been as fast and effective as in developed nations. In this paper, a case study is conducted regarding the existing issues and potential solutions for the ICT industry in Iran, as an example for a developing country. The study is based on interviews with a number of IT professional and government authorities. Additionally, the relevant literature to this topic is reviewed to generalize and extend the scope of the findings. This exploration is intended to identify the pertinent issues and challenges in developing countries and propose a fine-grained framework to encompass corresponding aspects and potential solutions.
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Generic Design Framework of a Reputation System
Introducing a Design Framework for Reputation Systems in Muliti-tier Production Communities
In: Digital Creativity Journal, special issue on "Collaboration and Community"

2012

Published
Authors: Pujan Ziaie, Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: Reputation systems are an important part of online production communities, for they provide both users and machine with proper metrics to assess the truthfulness and reliability of users, and their generated content. In multi-tier communities, in which users can be promoted to higher ranks, reputation systems are given a new role, which is helping the community to have a more meritocratic promotion process. This paper provides a design framework for reputation systems and promotion processes in the context of multi-tier production communities (MPCs). An apt promotion process based on a well-designed reputation system can be deemed as a valid practice to motivate users, enhance their level of trust and satisfaction, and increase the quantity and quality of contributions. We address different aspects and design elements of reputation systems and their association with and their impact on user participation in production communities, particularly those with a multi-tier structure.
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Introducing a Generic Concept for an Online IT-Benchmarking System
In: International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications

2012

Published
Authors: Pujan Ziaie,Markus Ziller, Jan Wollersheim and Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: While IT benchmarking has grown considerably in the last few years, conventional benchmarking tools have not been able to adequately respond to the rapid changes in technology and paradigm shifts in IT-related domains. This paper aims to review benchmarking methods and leverage design science methodology to present design elements for a novel software solution in the field of IT benchmarking. The solution, which introduces a concept for generic (service-independent) indicators is based on and refined by a comprehensive case study that involved large enterprises and has been evolved in the last three years. In this paper, we first review the theoretical background in the literature and highlight challenges within benchmarking processes in general and benchmarking of IT services in particular. We then explain how the initial design elements were extracted based on these preliminary findings as well as a comprehensive case study. The case study was conducted with a group of 15 large enterprises that were actively performing off-line IT benchmarking to enhance their organizational processes. The case study together with interviews with the supporting consulting firm helped us find out what kind of an online software solution can address the existing complexities and how. The proposed solution practically enabled the target organizations to support, ease, improve, and evaluate their IT-benchmarking process.
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Introducing a Framework to Capture and Reuse Tacit Knowledge in Software Project Management
In: 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS2009)

2009

Published
Authors: Pujan Ziaie, B.G. Jayaram, Mark Bilandzic and Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: In rapidly growing global companies, comprehensive training programs as well as in depth sharing of knowledge are essential factors to maintain the quality of human capital despite rapid expansion. Different dimensions of Knowledge management address the need and approach to leverage dispersed knowledge in order to make it visible and accessible for everyone to improve organizational performance. However, there has been a scarcity of successful and holistic models that define and categorize tacit knowledge in order to capture and distribute it for the benefit of others. This paper focuses on developing a framework in order to capture experiences regarding software project management and to provide a platform for managers to inherit knowledge from and bequeath their learning to others at large organizations. In order to build up and enhance the framework, the majority of information was gleaned from intensive interviews with top software project managers at Infosys, a well-known global company in the field of software development and consulting services. The final framework we developed can act as a comprehensive data-repository for capturing, storing, searching, and distributing tacit knowledge of project managers.
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Zamin, An Agent Based Artificial Life Model
In: Fourth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS'04)

2004

Published
Authors: Ramin Halavati, Saeed B. Shouraki, Saman H. Zadeh, Pujan Ziaie; and Caro Lucas
Abstract: Zamin artificial life model is designed to be a general purpose environment for researches on evolution of learning methods, living strategies and complex behaviors and is used in several studies thus far. As a main target for Zamin's design has been its expandability and ease of problem definition, a new agent based structure for this artificial world is introduced in this paper, which is believed to be much easier to use and extend. In this new model, all control and world running processes are done by agents. Therefore, any change in world processes does not require recoding the main engine and can be done just by altering the behavior of one or some agents. To have an easier interface for the design of new organisms, all creatures' communications with the world level is done through a common message map, thus, a designer just needs to code the required parts and append them to the main system to process the necessary messages. And at last, extending the model can be done with much less effort, as it can be done easily by creating new agents that handle the new tasks. This model is implemented and some coding differences with previous model are presented.
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A Novel Fuzzy Approach to Speech Recognition
In: Fourth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS'04)

2004

Published
Authors: Ramin Halavati, Saeed Bagheri Shouraki, Mahsa Eshraghi, Milad Alemzadeh, and Pujan Ziaie
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to speech recognition using fuzzy modeling. The task begins with conversion of speech spectrogram into a linguistic description based on arbitrary colors and lengths. While phonemes are also described using these fuzzy measures, and recognition is done by normal fuzzy reasoning, a genetic algorithm optimizes phoneme definitions so that to classify samples into correct phonemes. The method is tested over a standard speech data base and the results are presented.
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Book Chapters

E-government, online communities, and future trends
In: Handbook of Research on E-governance and social inclusion

2014

Accepted
Authors: Pujan Ziaie, Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: In the last decade, online communities and particularly social networks have become an important part of the life of many who have regular access to the Internet. Online communities and social networks are now inextricably entwined with our everyday social and professional lives. This phenomenon provides new opportunities for not only commercial companies, but also governmental institutions and the overall political process. We argue that governments and online communities have a mutual impact on each other. Governments might try to leverage online communities to access more citizens, provide new online services, and most importantly, delegate more tasks to users themselves. On the other hand, the entrenched democratic mechanisms of governments in developed countries could help community builders reorganize the structure of their communities for the sake of giving more power and recognition to their users. Similar to the gradual evolution of political systems towards democratization, the authors are convinced that online production communities are very likely to move from an oligarchic system to a democratic one. This implies that more moderation tasks will be handed over to users themselves and more important decisions regarding community regulations and policies will be made by them. In this chapter, we study online communities and their relationship with governments, including the observed reciprocal effects.
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Theses

PhD

 

2014

Title: Lifecycle-based Design Principles for Open Production Communities
Supervisor: Helmut Krcmar
Abstract: Open production communities are a cost-effective and reliable way of generating content by leveraging the potential creativity, manpower, and knowledge of a vast crowd (crowdsourcing) in a systematic way. The focus of this thesis is on providing design principles in the field of open production communities (OPCs). Despite various approaches and theories, constructing a successful production community is more of an art than science, because of the complexities of its interdisciplinary and constantly-changing nature. This thesis aims at defining and evaluating generic design principles for OPCs with regard to two main general phases in a community's life cycle: before reaching the maturity stage, and after entering it. Four pertinent aspects of production communities will be meticulously studied in order to properly backup the proposed design principles: incentive mechanisms, user reputation systems, content quality assessment processes, and user-related governance practices. The principles will be discussed with and qualitatively evaluated by community experts.
Full text (V2)  Defense presentation
Progress Reports: May 2012 - October 2012 - April 2013

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Master's

 

2008

Title: Implementing and Evaluating Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Robot Joint-Action
Supervisor: Alois Knoll
Abstract: In this thesis, a reliable, fast and robust approach to static hand gesture recognition in the domain of a Human-Robot interaction system is presented. The algorithm has been successfully operated in the gesture recognition module of the Joint-Action Science and Technology (JAST) project.
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Bachelor's

 

2004

Title: Constructing a Fuzzy Controller a biped-robot with Active Learning Method (ALM)
Supervisor:Saeed Bagheri
Abstract: This thesis presents an approach to build up a fuzzy controller based on the active learning method (ALM). The controller settings are extracted automatically from the existing data of a biped robot.
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Translations

Original title: Informationsmanagement

Translated into: Persian

Persian Title: مدیریت جامع فناوری و اطلاعات

September 2015

In final publication process
Publisher: University of Tehran
 
Vol. 1 - Vol. 2 External link

 

 
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